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Common name: 2,4-D
IUPAC name: (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid
Chemical Abstracts name: (2,4-dichlorophenoxy)acetic acid
CAS RN: [94-75-7]
Mol. wt.: 221.0
Form: Colourless powder, with a slight phenolic odour.
M.p.: 140.5 ºC
V.p.: 1.86×10-2 mPa (25 °C, OECD 104)
KOW logP 2.58-2.83 (pH 1), 0.04-0.33 (pH 5)
Henry: 1.32 ×10-5 Pa mmol-1 (calc.)
S.g./density: 0.7-0.8
Solubility In water 311 (pH 1), 20031 (pH 5), 23180 (pH 7), 34196 (pH 9) (all in mg/l, 25 °C). In ethanol 1250, diethyl ether 243, heptane 1.1, toluene 6.7, xylene 5.8 (all in g/kg, 20 ºC); in octanol 120 g/l (25 °C). Insoluble in petroleum oils. Mono-n-butylamine salt: In water 18 g/l (30 ºC).
Stability Hard water leads to precipitation of the calcium and magnesium salts, but a sequestering agent is included in formulations to prevent this. Photolytic DT50 (simulated sunlight) 7.5 d.
Oral Acute oral LD50 for rats 639-764, mice 138 mg/kg.
Skin and eye Acute percutaneous LD50 for rats >1600, rabbits >2400 mg/kg. Skin and eye irritant (rabbits). Not a skin sensitiser (guinea pigs).
Inhalation LC50 (24 h) for rats >1.79 mg/l.
NOEL (2 y) for rats and mice 5 mg/kg b.w.; (1 y) for dogs 1 mg/kg b.w.
ADI (JMPR) 0.01 mg/kg b.w.
Toxicity class WHO (a.i.) II
EPA (formulation) II
EC hazard Xn; R22| Xi; R36/37/38: (for salts and esters, Xn; R20/21/22)
Birds Acute oral  LD50 for wild ducks >1000, Japanese quail 668, pigeons 668, pheasants 472 mg/kg. LC50 (96 h) for mallard ducks >5620 mg/l.
Fish Some formulations (e.g. esters) are toxic to fish, whilst others are not. LC50 (96 h) for rainbow trout >100 mg/l.
Daphnia  LC50 (21 d) 235 mg/l.
Algae EC50 (5 d) for Selenastrum capricornutum 33.2 mg/l.
Other aquatic spp. EC50 (14 d) for Lemna gibba 0.58 mg/l.
Bees Not Toxic to bees.  LD50 (oral) 104.5 mg/bee.
Worms  LC50 (7 d) 860 mg/kg; NOEC (14 d) 100 g/kg.

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